“Saya memohon maaf kepada semua pembaca blog kerana buat masa ini saya tidak dapat menghantar nota yang diminta kerana kesibukan tugas.Harap maklum "Tidak terjadi hari Kiamat sehingga Sungai Furat (Sungai Euphrates iaitu sebuah Gunung daripada emas. Ramai orang yang berperang untuk merebutnya. Maka terbunuh 99 daripada 100 orang yang berperang. Dan masing2 yang terlibat berkata, "Mudah2an akulah yang orang yang terselamat itu". Di dalam riwayat lain ada disebutkan, "Sudah dekat suatu masa di mana Sungai Furat akan menjadi surut airnya lalu ternampak perbendaharaan daripada emas, maka barang siapa yang hadir di situ JANGANLAH ia mengambil sesuatu pun daripada harta itu". (H.R. Bukhari Muslim)Saya memohon maaf kepada semua pembaca blog kerana buat masa ini saya tidak dapat menghantar nota yang diminta kerana kesibukan tugas.Harap maklum."

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on 28 Ogo 2014

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Ebola virus disease

on 23 Ogo 2014

Ebola virus disease
Key facts

·         Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans.
·         EVD outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 90%.
·         EVD outbreaks occur primarily in remote villages in Central and West Africa, near tropical rainforests.
·         The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.
·         Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the natural host of the Ebola virus.
·         Severely ill patients require intensive supportive care. No licensed specific treatment or vaccine is available for use in people or animals.
Ebola first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, in Nzara, Sudan, and in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter was in a village situated near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.
Genus Ebolavirus is 1 of 3 members of the Filoviridae family (filovirus), along with genus Marburgvirus and genus Cuevavirus. Genus Ebolavirus comprises 5 distinct species:
·         Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV)
·         Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV)
·         Reston ebolavirus (RESTV)
·         Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV)
·         Taï Forest ebolavirus (TAFV).
BDBV, EBOV, and SUDV have been associated with large EVD outbreaks in Africa, whereas RESTV and TAFV have not. The RESTV species, found in Philippines and the People’s Republic of China, can infect humans, but no illness or death in humans from this species has been reported to date.
Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals. In Africa, infection has been documented through the handling of infected chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest.
Ebola then spreads in the community through human-to-human transmission, with infection resulting from direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and indirect contact with environments contaminated with such fluids. Burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the body of the deceased person can also play a role in the transmission of Ebola. Men who have recovered from the disease can still transmit the virus through their semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery from illness.
Health-care workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed EVD. This has occurred through close contact with patients when infection control precautions are not strictly practiced.
Among workers in contact with monkeys or pigs infected with Reston ebolavirus, several infections have been documented in people who were clinically asymptomatic. Thus, RESTV appears less capable of causing disease in humans than other Ebola species.
However, the only available evidence available comes from healthy adult males. It would be premature to extrapolate the health effects of the virus to all population groups, such as immuno-compromised persons, persons with underlying medical conditions, pregnant women and children. More studies of RESTV are needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn about the pathogenicity and virulence of this virus in humans.
Signs and symptoms
EVD is a severe acute viral illness often characterized by the sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding. Laboratory findings include low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes.
People are infectious as long as their blood and secretions contain the virus. Ebola virus was isolated from semen 61 days after onset of illness in a man who was infected in a laboratory.
The incubation period, that is, the time interval from infection with the virus to onset of symptoms, is 2 to 21 days.
Other diseases that should be ruled out before a diagnosis of EVD can be made include: malaria, typhoid fever, shigellosis, cholera, leptospirosis, plague, rickettsiosis, relapsing fever, meningitis, hepatitis and other viral haemorrhagic fevers. Ebola virus infections can be diagnosed definitively in a laboratory through several types of tests:
·         antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
·         antigen detection tests
·         serum neutralization test
·         reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay
·         electron microscopy
·         virus isolation by cell culture.
Samples from patients are an extreme biohazard risk; testing should be conducted under maximum biological containment conditions.

Vaccine and treatment
No licensed vaccine for EVD is available. Several vaccines are being tested, but none are available for clinical use.
Severely ill patients require intensive supportive care. Patients are frequently dehydrated and require oral rehydration with solutions containing electrolytes or intravenous fluids.
No specific treatment is available. New drug therapies are being evaluated.
Natural host of Ebola virus
In Africa, fruit bats, particularly species of the genera Hypsignathus monstrosus, Epomops franqueti and Myonycteris torquata, are considered possible natural hosts for Ebola virus. As a result, the geographic distribution of Ebolaviruses may overlap with the range of the fruit bats.
Ebola virus in animals
Although non-human primates have been a source of infection for humans, they are not thought to be the reservoir but rather an accidental host like human beings. Since 1994, Ebola outbreaks from the EBOV and TAFV species have been observed in chimpanzees and gorillas.
RESTV has caused severe EVD outbreaks in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) farmed in Philippines and detected in monkeys imported into the USA in 1989, 1990 and 1996, and in monkeys imported to Italy from Philippines in 1992.
Since 2008, RESTV viruses have been detected during several outbreaks of a deadly disease in pigs in People’s Republic of China and Philippines. Asymptomatic infection in pigs has been reported and experimental inoculations have shown that RESTV cannot cause disease in pigs.
Prevention and control
Controlling Reston ebolavirus in domestic animals
No animal vaccine against RESTV is available. Routine cleaning and disinfection of pig or monkey farms (with sodium hypochlorite or other detergents) should be effective in inactivating the virus.
If an outbreak is suspected, the premises should be quarantined immediately. Culling of infected animals, with close supervision of burial or incineration of carcasses, may be necessary to reduce the risk of animal-to-human transmission. Restricting or banning the movement of animals from infected farms to other areas can reduce the spread of the disease.
As RESTV outbreaks in pigs and monkeys have preceded human infections, the establishment of an active animal health surveillance system to detect new cases is essential in providing early warning for veterinary and human public health authorities.
Reducing the risk of Ebola infection in people
In the absence of effective treatment and a human vaccine, raising awareness of the risk factors for Ebola infection and the protective measures individuals can take is the only way to reduce human infection and death.
In Africa, during EVD outbreaks, educational public health messages for risk reduction should focus on several factors:
Reducing the risk of wildlife-to-human transmission from contact with infected fruit bats or monkeys/apes and the consumption of their raw meat. Animals should be handled with gloves and other appropriate protective clothing. Animal products (blood and meat) should be thoroughly cooked before consumption.
Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission in the community arising from direct or close contact with infected patients, particularly with their bodily fluids. Close physical contact with Ebola patients should be avoided. Gloves and appropriate personal protective equipment should be worn when taking care of ill patients at home. Regular hand washing is required after visiting patients in hospital, as well as after taking care of patients at home.
Communities affected by Ebola should inform the population about the nature of the disease and about outbreak containment measures, including burial of the dead. People who have died from Ebola should be promptly and safely buried.
Pig farms in Africa can play a role in the amplification of infection because of the presence of fruit bats on these farms. Appropriate biosecurity measures should be in place to limit transmission. For RESTV, educational public health messages should focus on reducing the risk of pig-to-human transmission as a result of unsafe animal husbandry and slaughtering practices, and unsafe consumption of fresh blood, raw milk or animal tissue. Gloves and other appropriate protective clothing should be worn when handling sick animals or their tissues and when slaughtering animals. In regions where RESTV has been reported in pigs, all animal products (blood, meat and milk) should be thoroughly cooked before eating.

Controlling infection in health-care settings
Human-to-human transmission of the Ebola virus is primarily associated with direct or indirect contact with blood and body fluids. Transmission to health-care workers has been reported when appropriate infection control measures have not been observed.
It is not always possible to identify patients with EBV early because initial symptoms may be non-specific. For this reason, it is important that health-care workers apply standard precautions consistently with all patients – regardless of their diagnosis – in all work practices at all times. These include basic hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, the use of personal protective equipment (according to the risk of splashes or other contact with infected materials), safe injection practices and safe burial practices.

Health-care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus should apply, in addition to standard precautions, other infection control measures to avoid any exposure to the patient’s blood and body fluids and direct unprotected contact with the possibly contaminated environment. When in close contact (within 1 metre) of patients with EBV, health-care workers should wear face protection (a face shield or a medical mask and goggles), a clean, non-sterile long-sleeved gown, and gloves (sterile gloves for some procedures).

Laboratory workers are also at risk. Samples taken from suspected human and animal Ebola cases for diagnosis should be handled by trained staff and processed in suitably equipped laboratories.
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Share Profit Shops

on 24 Jul 2014

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Jadual Penuh Piala Dunia 2014.

on 21 Jun 2014

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on 17 Jun 2014

Sukan olahraga merupakan sejenis sukan yang menarik dan berlainan daripada sukan-sukan lain. lni disebabkan terdapat banyak acara, untuk lelaki dan wanita. Terdapat acara-acara yang dipertandingkan sebagai acara individu dan berpasukan. Acara 100 meter adalah acara pecut dan dikenali sebagai Âacara riben biruÊ semasa temasya Sukan Olimpik. Biasanya pemegang rekod dunia 100 meter akan dinobatkan sebagai Âorang terpantas di duniaÊ. Sebelum adanya acara 100 meter, jarak larian ialah 100 ela (91 meter). Namun demikian, larian 100 ela telah tidak lagi digunakan pada masa kini.
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Membaiki teknik lompat tinggi.

on 7 Jun 2014
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Topik 3 Organisasi dalam pendidikan jasmani dan sukan

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Topik 4 - Lompat Tinggi

on 6 Jun 2014

Acara lompat tinggi begitu popular dalam mana-mana kejohanan sukan olahraga dan sentiasa mendapat perhatian ramai. Ia adalah salah satu acara padang yang memerlukan peserta melompat melepasi palang. Palang tersebut diletakkan di antara dua tiang tegak. Lompat tinggi mula diperkenalkan pada tahun 1887 dan pada tahun 1896 acara ini telah diperkenalkan di dalam Sukan Olimpik. Secara amnya, acara lompat tinggi dikuasai oleh atlet-atlet yang bertubuh tinggi dengan kualiti lonjakan yang baik. Namun begitu, terdapat juga atlet yang bertubuh rendah yang telah mencapai kejayaan kerana mempunyai keistimewaan dalam membuat lonjakan. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kelajuan memecut tidak dianggap sebagai kriteria utama dalam acara lompat tinggi.

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Topik 3 - Lontar Peluru

Acara lontar peluru memerlukan kekuatan otot dan kemahiran atlet untuk melontar peluru dari satu bulatan kecil. Lontaran ini hanya boleh dilakukan dengan menggunakan sebelah tangan sahaja. Acara lontar peluru diperkenalkan kepada murid sekolah rendah dengan berat peluru yang kurang berbanding dengan pelajar sekolah menengah. Acara lontar peluru adalah satu acara olahraga acara padang yang melibatkan lontaran melalui pergerakan menolak satu bola logam besi berat sejauh yang boleh. Acara lontar peluru terus menjadi salah satu acara yang dipertandingkan dalam kebanyakan perjumpaan olahraga. Teknik lontaran diperbaiki dan disesuaikan dari semasa ke semasa bagi menjamin kelicinan dan peningkatan dalam lontarannya.

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on 3 Jun 2014

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APA Style

on 29 Mei 2014

The rules of APA Style®, detailed in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, offer sound guidance for writing with simplicity, power, and concision. APA Style has been adapted by many disciplines and is used by writers around the world.

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Lontar Peluru

on 28 Mei 2014

Acara lontar peluru memerlukan kekuatan otot dan kemahiran atlet untuk melontar peluru dari satu bulatan kecil. Lontaran ini hanya boleh dilakukan dengan menggunakan sebelah tangan sahaja. Acara lontar peluru diperkenalkan kepada murid sekolah rendah dengan berat peluru yang kurang berbanding dengan pelajar sekolah menengah. Acara lontar peluru adalah satu acara olahraga acara padang yang melibatkan lontaran melalui pergerakan menolak satu bola logam besi berat sejauh yang boleh. Acara lontar peluru terus menjadi salah satu acara yang dipertandingkan dalam kebanyakan perjumpaan olahraga. Teknik lontaran diperbaiki dan disesuaikan dari semasa ke semasa bagi menjamin kelicinan dan peningkatan dalam lontarannya.

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HBPE3303 Kegiatan Profesional(Olahraga)

on 25 Mei 2014

Sejarah awal acara lompat jauh dikesan sejak dari zaman masihi lagi. Lompatan awal yang dicatatkan dalam rekod ialah oleh Chionis sejauh 7.05 meter pada tahun 656 Masihi. Bagaimanapun terdapat perbezaan cara lompatan pada zaman kuno dengan zaman sekarang, di mana didapati pada zaman kuno, lompatan dilakukan berkali-kali.

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HBPE3303 -Sukan Olahraga

on 24 Mei 2014

Olahraga merupakan aktiviti fizikal yang mewujudkan persaingan antara individu dan kumpulan. Dalam aktiviti olahraga, kita tidak hanya berlawan secara terus dengan individu atau kumpulan tetapi juga cuba berlawan dengan catatan masa dan keupayaan sendiri untuk menjadi pemenang. Olahraga juga terdiri daripada gerakan aktiviti semula jadi seperti berlari, melompat dan membaling. Oleh itu, sukan olahraga merupakan asas penting kepada individu dalam menguasi semua jenis kemahiran sukan dan permainan.

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